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2010
Constants used in Gaussian 16, taken from [Mohr12, Mohr12a] and references therein. This is the default.
2006
Constants used in Gaussian 09, taken from [Mohr08] and references therein.
1998
Constants used in Gaussian 03 from [Mohr00] and references therein.
1986
Constants used in Gaussian 88 through Gaussian 98, from [Cohen86, CRC80].
1979
Constants used in Gaussian 80 through Gaussian 86, mostly from [Constyear79].
Current Values
Here are summarized various conversion factors and physical constants used by Gaussian 16 in converting from standard to atomic units. All quantities used in calculations inside Gaussian are in atomic units; the conversion factors are used only when processing input or generating printed output. Values without references are derived from the referenced quantities.
Raw Constants. The constants which are stored directly in the program are:
1 Bohr (a_{0}) | = 0.52917721092 Å [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
1 Atomic mass unit (amu, m_{u}) | = 1.660538921 × 10^{-27} kilograms [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
1 Electron charge (e) | = 1.602176565 × 10^{-19} Coulombs [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
= 4.803204 × 10^{-10} ESU | |
Planck’s constant (h) | = 6.62606957 × 10^{-34} Joule-secs [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Avogadro’s number (N_{A}) | = 6.02214129 × 10^{23} [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
1 Kcal-mol^{-1} | = 4.184 KJoules-mol^{-1} [Constyear79] |
1 Hartree(E_{h}) | = 4.35974434 × 10^{-18} Joules [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Speed of light (c) | = 2.99792458 × 10^{10} cm-sec^{-1} [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Boltzman constant (k) | = 1.3806488 × 10^{-23} Joules-degree^{-1} [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Inverse fine structure constant (α^{-1}) | = 137.035999074 [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Molar volume of ideal gas at 273.15 K (V_{m}) | = 0.022710953 m^{3} [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Proton rest mass (m_{p}) | = 1.672621777 × 10^{-27} kg [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Electron magnetic moment (μ_{e}) | = -9.28476430 × 10^{-24} J T^{-1} [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Free electron g-factor (g_{e}) | = −2.00231930436153 (dimensionless) [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Conversion Factors. The following useful conversion factors are included for your convenience:
Electron mass (m_{e}) | = 0.910938291 × 10^{-30} kg [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Proton mass (m_{p}/m_{e}) | = 1836.15267245 electron mass [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
1 Atomic mass unit (amu) | = 1.660538921 × 10^{-27} kg [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
= 1822.8885 electron mass | |
1 Electron volt (eV) | = 1.602176565 × 10^{-19} Joules [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
= 23.06 kcal-mol^{-1} | |
1 Hartree | = 627.5095 kcal-mol^{-1} |
= 27.2114 eV | |
= 219474.63 cm^{-1} (vibrational freq. au) | |
1 Debye^{2}-angstrom^{-2}-amu^{-1} (IR intensity unit) | = 42.2561 km-mol^{-1} |
= 5.82573 × 10^{-3} cm^{-2}-atm^{-1} at STP | |
Electric field: 1 au | = 5.14220652 × 10^{11} V-m^{-1} [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
Electric polarizability: 1 au | = 1.6487772754 × 10^{-41} C^{2}-m^{2}-J^{-1} [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
1 Bohr-electron (electric dipole moment au) | = 8.47835326 × 10^{-30} C-m [Mohr12, Mohr12a] |
= 2.541746 Debye = 2.541746 × 10^{-18} esu-cm |
Last updated on: 29 November 2023. [G16 Rev. C.01]